Course: Opportunistic Fungi in the Immunocompromised Patient
Table of Contents Next CME main Next 


Coccidioidomycosis — Arizona, 1990-1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1996;45:1069-73.

Update: coccidioidomycosis — California, 1991-1993. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1994;43:421-3.

Ankobiah WA, Vaidya K, Powell S, et al. Disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS. Clinicopathologic features in seven patients from a non-endemic area. N Y State J Med 1990;90:234-8.

Public health focus: surveillance, prevention, and control of nosocomial infections. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1992;41:783-7.

Pittet D, Tarara D, Wenzel RP. Nosocomial bloodstream infection in critically ill patients. Excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality [see comments]. JAMA 1994;271:1598-601.

Jarvis WR. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections, with emphasis on Candida species. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:1526-30.

Edmond MB, Wallace SE, McClish DK, Pfaller MA, Jones RN, Wenzel RP. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in United States hospitals: a three-year analysis. Clin Infect Dis 1999;29:239-44.

National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System report, data summary from January 1990-May 1999, issued June 1999. 1999;27:520-32.

Morrison VA, Haake RJ, Weisdorf DJ. The spectrum of non-Candida fungal infections following bone marrow transplantation. Medicine (Baltimore) 1993;72:78-89.

Anaissie E. Opportunistic mycoses in the immunocompromised host: experience at a cancer center and review. Clin Infect Dis 1992;14 Suppl 1: S43-53.

Fridkin SK, Jarvis WR. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections [see comments]. Clin Microbiol Rev 1996;9:499-511.

Pfaller MA. Nosocomial candidiasis: emerging species, reservoirs, and modes of transmission. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22 Suppl 2:S89-94.

Pearson ML. Guideline for prevention of intravascular device-related infections. Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee [see comments]. 1996;17:438-73.

Dankner WM, Spector SA, Fierer J, Davis CE. Malassezia fungemia in neonates and adults: complication of hyperalimentation. Rev Infect Dis 1987;9:743-53.

Bross J, Talbot GH, Maislin G, Hurwitz S, Strom BL. Risk factors for nosocomial candidemia: a casecontrol study in adults without leukemia. Am J Med 1989;87:614-20.

Bargon J, Dauletbaev N, Kohler B, Wolf M, Posselt HG, Wagner TO. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy is associated with an increased prevalence of Aspergillus colonization in adult cystic fibrosis patients. Respir Med 1999;93:835-8.

Gadebusch H. Mechanisms of native and acquired resistance to infection with Cryptococcus neoformans . Crit Rev Microbiol 1972;1:311-20.

Levitz SM. Overview of host defenses in fungal infections. Clin Infect Dis 1992;14 Suppl 1:S37-42.

Marr KA, Seidel K, White TC, Bowden RA. Candidemia in allogeneic blood and marrow transplant recipients: evolution of risk factors after the adoption of prophylactic fluconazole. J Infect Dis 2000;181:309-16.

Tollemar J, Ringden O, Bostrom L, Nilsson B, Sundberg B. Variables predicting deep fungal infections in bone marrow transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant 1989;4:635-41.

Bodey G, Bueltmann B, Duguid W, et al. Fungal infections in cancer patients: an international autopsy survey. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1992;11:99-109.

Anaissie EJ, Rex JH, Uzun O, Vartivarian S. Predictors of adverse outcome in cancer patients with candidemia. Am J Med 1998;104:238-45.

Wingard JR. Importance of Candida species other than C. albicans as pathogens in oncology patients. Clin Infect Dis 1995;20:115-25.

Viscoli C, Girmenia C, Marinus A, et al. Candidemia in cancer patients: a prospective, multicenter surveillance study by the Invasive Fungal Infection Group (IFIG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC).

Johnson CC, Wilcosky T, Kvale P, et al. Cancer incidence among an HIV-infected cohort. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group. Am J Epidemiol 1997;146:470-5.

Nosanchuk JD, Sepkowitz KA, Pearse RN, White MH, Nimer SD, Armstrong D. Infectious complications of autologous bone marrow and peripheral stem cell transplantation for refractory leukemia and lymphoma. Bone Marrow Transplant 1996;18:355-9.

Wald A, Leisenring W, van Burik JA, Bowden RA. Epidemiology of Aspergillus infections in a large cohort of patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation [see comments]. J Infect Dis 1997; 175:1459-66.

Milliken ST, Powles RL. Antifungal prophylaxis in bone marrow transplantation. Rev Infect Dis 1990;12 Suppl 3:S374-9.

Meyers JD, Atkinson K. Infection in bone marrow transplantation. Clin Haematol 1983;12:791-811.

Verfaillie C, Weisdorf D, Haake R, Hostetter M, Verfaillie C, Weisdorf D, Haake R, Hostetter M, Verfaillie C, Weisdorf D, Haake R, Hostetter M, Transplant 1991;8:177-84.

Denning DW, Stevens DA. Antifungal and surgical Denning DW, Stevens DA. Antifungal and surgical published cases [published erratum appears in Rev Infect Dis 1991 Mar-Apr;13(2):345]. Rev Infect Dis 1990;12:1147-201.

Marr KA, Crippa F, Carter R, Boeckh M, Corey L. Epidemiology of Fungal Infections in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients in the 1990’s. Presented at Infectious Disease Society of America Annual Conference, New Orleans, 2000.

Patel R, Paya CV. Infections in solid-organ transplant recipients. Clin Microbiol Rev 1997;10:86-124.

Lortholary O, Dupont B. Antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia and immunodeficiency. Clin Microbiol Rev 1997;10:477-504.

Briegel J, Forst H, Spill B, et al. Risk factors for systemic fungal infections in liver transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1995;14:375-82.

Kramer MR, Marshall SE, Starnes VA, Gamberg P, Amitai Z, Theodore J. Infectious complications in heart-lung transplantation. Analysis of 200 episodes. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:2010-6.

Kong NC, Shaariah W, Morad Z, Suleiman AB, Wong YH. Cryptococcosis in a renal unit. Aust N Z J Med 1990;20:645-9.

Reef SE, Mayer KH. Opportunistic candidal infections in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: prevention issues and priorities. Clin Infect Dis 1995;21 Suppl 1: S99-102.

Klein RS, Harris CA, Small CB, Moll B, Lesser M, Friedland GH. Oral candidiasis in high-risk patients as the initial manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 1984;311:354-8.

Sangeorzan JA, Bradley SF, He X, et al. Epidemiology of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients: colonization, infection, treatment, and emergence of fluconazole resistance. Am J Med 1994;97:339-46.

Dismukes WE. Cryptococcal meningitis in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis 1988;157:624-8.

Chuck SL, Sande MA. Infections with Cryptococcus neoformans in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [see comments]. N Engl J Med 1989;321:794-9.

Khoo SH, Denning DW. Invasive aspergillosis in patients with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis 1994;19 Suppl 1:S41-8.

Hibberd PL, Rubin RH. Clinical aspects of fungal infection in organ transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 1994;19 Suppl 1:S33-40.

Sable CA, Donowitz GR. Infections in bone marrow transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 1994;18:273-81; quiz 82-4.

Kiehn TE, Capitolo C, Mayo JB, Armstrong D. Comparative recovery of fungi from biphasic and conventional blood culture media. J Clin Microbiol 1981;14:681-3.

Gill VJ, Zierdt CH, Wu TC, Stock F, Pizzo PA, MacLowry JD. Comparison of lysis-centrifugation with lysis-.ltration and a conventional unvented bottle for blood cultures. J Clin Microbiol 1984;20:927-32.

Munoz P, Bernaldo de Quiros JC, Berenguer J, Rodriguez Creixems M, Picazo JJ, Bouza E. Impact of the BACTEC NR system in detecting Candida fungemia. J Clin Microbiol 1990;28:639-41.

Wilson ML, Davis TE, Mirrett S, et al. Controlled comparison of the BACTEC high-blood-volume fungal medium, BACTEC Plus 26 aerobic blood culture bottle, and 10-milliliter isolator blood culture system for detection of fungemia and bacteremia [see comments]. J Clin Microbiol 1993;31:865-71.

Van Burik JA, Myerson D, Schreckhise RW, Bowden RA. Panfungal PCR assay for detection of fungal infection in human blood specimens. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:1169-75.

Horvath JA, Dummer S. The use of respiratory-tract cultures in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Am J Med 1996;100:171-8.

Andriole VT. Invasive aspergillosis: serologic diagnosis. Recent Results Cancer Res 1993;132:117-25.

Williamson EC, Oliver DA, Johnson EM, Foot AB, Marks DI, Warnock DW. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients. J Clin Pathol 2000;53:362-6.

Denning DW. Early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Lancet 2000;355:423-4.

Ascioglu S DPB, Bille J, et al. Analysis of Definitions Used In Clinical Research on Invasive Fungal Infections (IFI): Consensus Proposal for New, Standardized Definitions. 39th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. San Francisco, CA, 1999, Abstract No. 1639.

Maertens J, Verhaegen J, Demuynck H, et al. Autopsy-controlled prospective evaluation of serial screening for circulating galactomannan by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for hematological patients at risk for invasive Aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:3223-8.

Bretagne S, Costa JM, Bart-Delabesse E, Dhedin N, Rieux C, Cordonnier C. Comparison of serum galactomannan antigen detection and competitive polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:1407-12.

Gefter WB, Albelda SM, Talbot GH, Gerson SL, Cassileth PA, Miller WT. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and acute leukemia. Limitations in the diagnostic utility of the air crescent sign. Radiology 1985;157:605-10.

Kuhlman JE, Fishman EK, Siegelman SS. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in acute leukemia: characteristic findings on CT, the CT halo sign, and the role of CT in early diagnosis. Radiology 1985;157:611-4.

von Eiff M, Roos N, Schulten R, Hesse M, Zuhlsdorf M, van de Loo J. Pulmonary aspergillosis: early diagnosis improves survival. Respiration 1995;62:341-7.

Rex JH, Walsh TJ, Anaissie EJ. Fungal infections in iatrogenically compromised hosts. Adv Intern Med 1998;43:321-71.

Berenguer J, Buck M, Witebsky F, Stock F, Pizzo PA, Walsh TJ. Lysis-centrifugation blood cultures in the detection of tissue-proven invasive candidiasis. Disseminated versus single-organ infection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 1993;17:103-9.

Mitsutake K, Miyazaki T, Tashiro T, et al. Enolase antigen, mannan antigen, Cand-Tec antigen, and beta-glucan in patients with candidemia. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34:1918-21.

Walsh TJ, Merz WG, Lee JW, et al. Diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of invasive candidiasis by rapid enzymatic detection of serum D-arabinitol. Am J Med 1995;99:164-72.

Shepherd MG, Poulter RT, Sullivan PA. Candida albicans: biology, genetics, and pathogenicity. Annu Rev Microbiol 1985;39:579-614.

Georgopapadakou NH, Walsh TJ. Human mycoses: drugs and targets for emerging pathogens. Science 1994;264:371-3.

Gallis HA, Drew RH, Pickard WW. Amphotericin B: 30 years of clinical experience. Rev Infect Dis 1990;12:308-29.

Clements JS, Jr., Peacock JE, Jr. Amphotericin B revisited: reassessment of toxicity. Am J Med 1990;88:22N-7N.

Perfect JR, Lindsay MH, Drew RH. Adverse drug reactions to systemic antifungals. Prevention and management. Drug Safety 1992;7:323-63.

Butler WT, Bennett JE, Alling DW, et al. Nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B: early and late effects in 81 patients. Ann Intern Med 1964;61: 175-87.

Graybill JR. Lipid formulations for amphotericin B: does the emperor need new clothes? Ann Intern Med [editorial]. 1996;124:921-3.

Walsh TJ, Hiemenz JW, Seibel NL, et al. Amphotericin B lipid complex for invasive fungal infections: analysis of safety and efficacy in 556 cases [see comments]. Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:1383-96.

Walsh TJ, Seibel NL, Arndt C, et al. Amphotericin B lipid complex in pediatric patients with invasive fungal infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1999;18:702-8.

Wong-Beringer A, Jacobs RA, Guglielmo BJ. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B: clinical efficacy and toxicities. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:603-18.

Mehta J, Kelsey S, Chu P, et al. Amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) for the treatment of confirmed or presumed fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies. Bone Marrow Transplant 1997;20:39-43.

Anaissie E, White M, Uzun O, et al. Amphotericin B lipid complex vs amphotericin B for the treatment of invasive candidiasis: a prospective randomized multicenter trail [Abstract No. LM21]. In: program and abstracts of the 35th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, San Francisco, 1995.

Sharkey PK, Graybill JR, Johnson ES, et al. Amphotericin B lipid complex compared with amphotericin B in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with AIDS [see comments]. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:315-21.

White MH, Anaissie EJ, Kusne S, et al. Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion vs. amphotericin B as therapy for invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:635-42.

Leenders AC, Reiss P, Portegies P, et al. Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) compared with amphotericin B both followed by oral fluconazole in the treatment of AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. AIDs 1997;11:1463-71.

White MH, Bowden RA, Sandler ES, et al. Randomized, double-blind clinical trial of amphotericin B colloidal dispersion vs. amphotericin B in the empirical treatment of fever and neutropenia [see comments]. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:296-302.

Leenders AC, Daenen S, Jansen RL, et al. Liposomal amphotericin B compared with amphotericin B deoxycholate in the treatment of documented and suspected neutropenia-associated invasive fungal infections [see comments]. Br J Haematol 1998;103:205-12.

Prentice HG, Hann IM, Herbrecht R, et al. A randomized comparison of liposomal versus conventional amphotericin B for the treatment of pyrexia of unknown origin in neutropenic patients. Br J Haematol 1997;98:711-8.

Walsh TJ, Finberg RW, Arndt C, et al. Liposomal amphotericin B for empirical therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group [see comments]. N Engl J Med 1999;340:764-71.

Wingard JR, White MH, Anaissie E, Raffalli J, Goodman J, Arrieta A. A randomized, double-blind comparative trial evaluating the safety of liposomal amphotericin B versus amphotericin B lipid complex in the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:1155-63.

Kelsey SM, Goldman JM, McCann S, et al. Liposomal amphotericin (AmBisome) in the prophylaxis of fungal infections in neutropenic patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebocontrolled study. Bone Marrow Transplant 1999;23:163-8.

Timmers GJ, Zweegman S, Simoons-Smit AM, van Loenen AC, Touw D, Huijgens PC. Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (Amphocil) vs .uconazole for the prevention of fungal infections in neutropenic patients: data of a prematurely stopped clinical trial. Bone Marrow Transplant 2000;25:879-84.

Cagnoni PJ, Walsh TJ, Prendergast MM, et al. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of liposomal amphotericin B versus conventional amphotericin B in the empirical treatment of persistently febrile neutropenic patients. J Clin Oncol 2000;18:2476-83.

Dismukes WE. Introduction to antifungal drugs. Clin Infect Dis 2000;30:653-7.

Patterson TF. Role of newer azoles in surgical patients. J Chemother 1999;11:504-12.

Denning DW. Echinocandins and pneumocandins — a new antifungal class with a novel mode of action. J Antimicrob Chemother 1997;40:611-4.

Vazquez JA, Lynch M, Boikov D, Sobel JD. In vitro activity of a new pneumocandin antifungal, L-743,872, against azole-susceptible and —resistant Candida species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1997;41:1612-4.

Sable CA, Villanueva A, Arathon E, et al. A randomized, double blind, multicenter trial of MK-991 (L-743,872) vs. amphotericin B (AmB) in the treatment of Candida esophagitis in adults. Presented at 37th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Toronto, 1997.

Maertens J, Raad I, Sable C, et al. Multicenter, comparative study to evaluate safety and efficacy of caspofungin in adults with invasive aspergillosis refractory or intolerant to amphotericin B, AMB lipid formulations, or azoles [Abstract 1103]. Presented at 40th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Toronto, 2000.

Roilides E, Dignani MC, Anaissie EJ, Rex JH. The role of immunoreconstitution in the management of refractory opportunistic fungal infections. Med Mycol 1998;36 Suppl 1:12-25.

Rodriguez-Adrian LJ, Grazziutti ML, Rex JH, Anaissie EJ. The potential role of cytokine therapy for fungal infections in patients with cancer: is recovery from neutropenia all that is needed? Clin Infect Dis 1998;26:1270-8.

Back to Contents

  Privacy Policy
Site Contents Copyright © 2006