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(described by Harrison in 1927)
Rhodotorula is a yeast found in air, soil, lakes, ocean water, and dairy products. It may colonize plants, humans , and other mammals. While being considered as a common contaminant, Rhodotorula may infect individuals with predisposing risk factors. One of its species, Rhodotorula glutinis has known teleomorphs in the genus Rhodosporidium. These teleomorphs are Rhodosporidium diobovatum, Rhodosporidium sphaerocarpum, and Rhodosporidium toruloides .
The genus Rhodotorula includes three active species; Rhodotorula glutinis, Rhodotorula minuta, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is the current name for the species formerly known as Rhodotorula rubra. Since it has been shown that the type strain of Rhodotorula rubra is actually a strain of Rhodotorula glutinis and the type strain of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is identical to the type strain for Rhodotorula rubra, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa is the current name for Rhodotorula rubra.
See the summary of synonyms and teleomorph-anamorph relations for the Rhodotorula spp.
Rhodotorula spp. are rarely isolated as causative agents of opportunistic mycoses [48, 62, 908, 1251] in vulnerable hosts, such as patients with AIDS or acute leukemia. Cases of meningitis [960, 1089, 1830], endocarditis , ventriculitis, peritonitis, endophthalmitis , central venous catheter-infections, fungemia, and sepsis [48, 857, 1189, 1769, 2014] have so far been reported.
Colonies are rapid growing, smooth, glistening or dull, sometimes roughened, soft and mucoid. They are cream to pink, coral red, orange or yellow in color [531, 1295, 2202].
Rhodotorula does not ferment carbohydrates and produces urease enzyme. Noteworthy, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, when it contaminates the tested serum sample, may cross-react with and result in false positive results of Pastorex Aspergillus antigen latex agglutination test .
Blastoconidia that are unicellular, and globose to elongate in shape are observed. These blastoconidia may be encapsulated. Pseudohyphae are absent or rudimentary. Hyphae are absent [531, 1295, 2202].
Rhodotorula differs from Cryptococcus by its inability to assimilate inositol and from Candida by producing pink-to-red colonies and lacking pseudohyphae.
No special precautions other than general laboratory precautions are required.
Limited data are available. For isolates of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, amphotericin B yielded the lowest MICs, followed by itraconazole and voriconazole. Fluconazole did not have any meaningful in vitro activity against Rhodotorula mucilaginosa [686, 857]. In another study, the MICs of amphotericin B and posaconazole were found to be lowest, while those of triazoles and echinocandins were relatively high .
For MICs of various antifungal drugs for Rhodotorula, see our susceptibility database.
Amphotericin B or its lipid formulations are preferred for treatment of Rhodotorula infections [857, 1387]. In cases associated with the existence of central venous catheters for extended durations, removal of the catheter is also indicated along with antifungal therapy. A case of endocarditis succesfully treated with oral flucytosine  and a patient with transient fungemia that resolved without any antifungal therapy  have also been reported.
48. Alliot, C., B. Desablens, R. Garidi, and S. Tabuteau. 2000. Opportunistic infection with Rhodotorula in cancer patients treated by chemotherapy: Two case reports. Clin Oncol-Uk. 12:115-117.
62. Anaissie, E., G. P. Bodey, H. Kantarjian, J. Ro, S. E. Vartivarian, R. Hopfer, J. Hoy, and K. Rolston. 1989. New spectrum of fungal infections in patients with cancer. Rev Infect Dis. 11:369-378.
531. de Hoog, G. S., J. Guarro, J. Gene, and M. J. Figueras. 2000. Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd ed, vol. 1. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
686. Espinel-Ingroff, A. 1998. In vitro activities of the new triazole voriconazole (UK-109,496) against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi and common and emerging yeast pathogens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:198-202.
857. Goldani, L. Z., D. E. Craven, and A. M. Sugar. 1995. Central venous catheter infection with Rhodotorula minuta in a patient with AIDS taking suppressive doses of fluconazole. J Med Vet Mycol. 33:267-70.
908. Groll, A. H., and T. J. Walsh. 2001. Uncommon opportunistic fungi: new nosocomial threats. Clin Microbiol Infect. 7:8-24.
960. Gyaurgieva, O. H., T. S. Bogomolova, and G. I. Gorshkova. 1996. Meningitis caused by Rhodotorula rubra in an HIV-infected patient. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 34:357-359.
1089. Huttova, M., K. Kralinsky, J. Horn, I. Marinova, K. Iligova, J. Fric, S. Spanik, J. Filka, J. Uher, J. Kurak, and V. Krcmery, Jr. 1998. Prospective study of nosocomial fungal Meningitis in children - Report of 10 Cases. Scand J Infec Dis. 30:485-487.
1153. Kappe, R., and A. Schulze-Berge. 1993. New cause for false-positive results with the Pastorex Aspergillus antigen latex agglutination test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:2489-2490.
1189. Kiehn, T. E., E. Gorey, A. E. Brown, F. F. Edwards, and D. Armstrong. 1992. Sepsis due to Rhodotorula related to use of indwelling central venous catheters. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:841-846.
1251. Krcmery, V., I. Krupova, and D. W. Denning. 1999. Invasive yeast infections other than Candida spp. in acute leukaemia. J Hosp Infect. 41:181-194.
1295. Larone, D. H. 1995. Medically Important Fungi - A Guide to Identification, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
1387. Lui, A. Y., G. S. Turett, D. L. Karter, P. C. Bellman, and J. W. Kislak. 1998. Amphotericin B lipid complex therapy in an AIDS patient with Rhodotorula rubra fungemia. Clin Infect Dis. 27:892-893.
1627. Naveh, Y., A. Friedman, D. Merzbach, and N. Hashman. 1975. Endocarditis caused by Rhodotorula successfully treated with 5-fluorocytosine. British Heart Journal. 37:101-104.
1769. Petrocheilou-Paschou, V., H. Prifti, E. Kostis, C. Papadimitriou, M. A. Dimopoulos, and S. Stamatelopoulos. 2001. Rhodotorula septicemia: case report and minireview. Clin Microbiol Infect. 7:100-102.
1800. Pinna, A., F. Carta, S. Zanetti, S. Sanna, and L. A. Sechi. 2001. Endogenous Rhodotorula minuta and Candida albicans endophthalmitis in an injecting drug user. Brit J Ophthalmol. 85:759.
1830. Pore, R. S., and J. Chen. 1976. Meningitis caused by Rhodotorula. Sabouraudia. 14:331-335.
1968. Rose, H. D., and V. P. Kurup. 1977. Colonization of hospitalized patients with yeast-like organisms. Sabouraudia. 15:251-6.
2014. Samonis, G., M. Anatoliotaki, H. Apostolakou, S. Maraki, D. Mavroudis, and V. Goergoulias. 2001. Transient fungemia due to Rhodotorula rubra in a cancer patient: Case report and review of the literature. Infection. 29:173-176.
2202. Sutton, D. A., A. W. Fothergill, and M. G. Rinaldi (ed.). 1998. Guide to Clinically Significant Fungi, 1st ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
2480. Zaas, A. K., M. Boyce, W. Schell, B. A. Lodge, J. L. Miller, and J. R. Perfect. 2003. Risk of fungemia due to Rhodotorula and antifungal susceptibility testing of Rhodotorula isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 41:5233-5235.