# Opportunistic Fungi in Cancer and Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant Patients: Diagnosis and Management Strategies
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Invasive Fungal Infections
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Invasive Fungal Infections

One consequence of the profound immunocompromise required for HSCT is an increased risk of life-threatening opportunistic infections. More than 90% of patients experience prolonged periods of fever, and half of them have documented infections during the posttransplant course. Candida species and Aspergillus species are the most common fungi causing invasive disease, although numerous other fungi once thought to be innocuous are emerging as opportunistic pathogens (Table 2).

Table 2

  Predominant Fungi Emerging Fungi
  Candida albicans Non-fumigatus Aspergillus spp
  Non-albicans Candida spp: Fusarium spp
      C tropicalis, C glabrata, Trichosporon spp
      C parapsilosis, Acremonium spp
      C krusei, Scedosporium spp
      C lusitaniae Zygomycetes
      Aspergillus fumigatus

Dematiaceous moulds

HSCT=hematopoietic stem-cell transplant.

Mortality is high in neutropenic patients with IFI. In patients with Aspergillus infection who have undergone allogeneic HSCT, it can exceed 90%,10 and virtually all patients with Fusarium and Trichosporon infections die.11,12 Even candidemia may be associated with a mortality rate as high as 50%.13,14

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Invasive Fungal Infections
   Risk Factors for Fungal Infections
   When to Think of Fungal Infections

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Course Number: V035D

This CME Expires on July 1, 2005; no tests will be accepted after this date.

This course is accredited by The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Center for Continuing Education and The International Immunocompromised Host Society

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