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Candida albicans
(Robin) Berkhout (1923)

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Macroscopic morphology

Colonies on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 25°C are white to cream, soft, and smooth to wrinkled. This isolate grows at 42°C and on media containing cycloheximide.

Microscopic morphology

On cornmeal following 72 hours incubation at 25°C, abundant branched pseudohyphae and true hyphae with blastoconidia are present. The blastoconidia are formed in grape-like clusters along the length of the hyphae. Terminal chlamydoconidia may be formed with extended incubation [2202].

Special notes

This species is the most commonly-isolated yeast in human disease. It has been implicated in both superficial and systemic disease. Recent reports of infections include corneal [1932], nail [1292], ear [1448], endocarditis [1328], and bloodstream [2337]. Risk factors for infections with C. albicans include age of 65 years or above, immunosuppression prior to steroid use, leukocytosis, intensive care unit stays, or presence of intravascular or urinary catheters. For those patients who have undergone cancer chemotherapy and who often appear less critically ill, infections are most likely to be caused by Candida species other than C. albicans [430]. Although this species continues to be the most common species isolated in bloodstream infections, reports show that the incidence is decreasing and the resistance is rare in neonatal populations [773]. Candida albicans is also a predominate species in fungal biofilms on medical devises [1013], [16].

FTL* in vitro susceptibility data

0.06 µg/ml=21 <0.03 µg/ml=407 <0.125 µg/ml=173 <0.125 µg/ml=730 <0.015 µg/ml=616 <0.015 µg/ml=534 <0.03 µg/ml=217
0.125 µg/ml=377 0.06 µg/ml=592 0.25 µg/ml=51 0.25 µg/ml=1015 0.03 µg/ml=113 0.03 µg/ml=43 0.06 µg/ml=51
0.25 µg/ml=894 0.125 µg/ml=193 0.5 µg/ml=51 0.5 µg/ml=152 0.06 µg/ml=31 0.06 µg/ml=24 0.125 µg/ml=9
0.5 µg/ml=77 0.25 µg/ml=57 1.0 µg/ml=57 1.0 µg/ml=74 0.125 µg/ml=23 0.125 µg/ml=29 0.25 µg/ml=18
1.0 µg/ml=14 0.5 µg/ml=6 2.0 µg/ml=16 2.0 µg/ml=28 0.25 µg/ml=35 0.25 µg/ml=28 0.5 µg/ml=8
2.0 µg/ml=2 1.0 µg/ml=6 4.0 µg/ml=4 4.0 µg/ml=32 0.5 µg/ml=34 0.5 µg/ml=24 1.0 µg/ml=5
  2.0 µg/ml=7 8.0 µg/ml=1 8.0 µg/ml=32 1.0 µg/ml=18 1.0 µg/ml=31 2.0 µg/ml=5
  4.0 µg/ml=3 16 µg/ml=2 16 µg/ml=34 2.0 µg/ml=11 2.0 µg/ml=20 4.0 µg/ml=4
  8.0 µg/ml=1 32 µg/ml=1 32 µg/ml=35 4.0 µg/ml=11 4.0 µg/ml=16 8.0 µg/ml=2
  >16 µg/ml=1 >64 µg/ml=14 >64 µg/ml=80 >8.0 µg/ml=19 > 8.0 µg/ml=31 > 16 µg/ml=2

Drug/N AMB/1385 CAS/1273 5FC/370 FLU/2212 ITRA/911 VORI/780 KETO/321
MIC Range 0.06-2.0 <0.03->16 <0.125->64 <0.125->64 <0.015->8.0 <0.015->8 <0.03->16
MIC50 0.25 0.06 0.25 0.25 < 0.015 < 0.015 < 0.03
MIC90 0.25 0.125 2.0 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.25
* Fungus Testing Laboratory unpublished data (NCCLS M27-A2)





Candida albicans chlamydoconidia, grown on cornmeal agar with 10% tween, Dalmau method

Candida albicans chlamydoconidia, grown on cornmeal agar with 10% tween, Dalmau method

Candida albicans chlamydoconidia, grown on cornmeal agar with 10% tween, Dalmau method

Candida albicans culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar slants


16. Adler, A., I. Yaniv, E. Solter, E. Freud, Z. Samra, J. Stein, S. Fisher, and I. Levy. 2006. Catheter-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric hematology-oncology patients: factors associated with catheter removal and recurrence. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 28:23-8.

430. Cheng, M. F., Y. L. Yang, T. J. Yao, C. Y. Lin, J. S. Liu, R. B. Tang, K. W. Yu, Y. H. Fan, K. S. Hsieh, M. Ho, and H. J. Lo. 2005. Risk factors for fatal candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species. BMC Infect Dis. 5:22.

773. Fridkin, S. K., D. Kaufman, J. R. Edwards, S. Shetty, and T. Horan. 2006. Changing incidence of Candida bloodstream infections among NICU patients in the United States: 1995-2004. Pediatrics. 117:1680-1687.

1013. He, X. Y., J. H. Meurman, K. Kari, R. Rautemaa, and L. P. Samaranayake. 2006. In vitro adhesion of Candida species to denture base materials. Mycoses. 49:80-4.

1292. Lange, M., J. Roszkiewicz, A. Szczerkowska-Dobosz, E. Jasiel-Walikowska, and B. Bykowska. 2006. Onychomycosis is no longer a rare finding in children. Mycoses. 49:55-9.

1328. Levy, I., I. Shalit, E. Birk, L. Sirota, S. Ashkenazi, B. German, and N. Linder. 2006. Candida endocarditis in neonates: report of five cases and review of the literature. Mycoses. 49:43-48.

1448. Martin, T. J., J. E. Kerschner, and V. A. Flanary. 2005. Fungal causes of otitis externa and tympanostomy tube otorrhea. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 69:1503-8. Epub 2005 May 31.

1932. Ritterband, D. C., J. A. Seedor, M. K. Shah, R. S. Koplin, and S. A. McCormick. 2006. Fungal keratitis at the new york eye and ear infirmary. Cornea. 25:264-7.

2202. Sutton, D. A., A. W. Fothergill, and M. G. Rinaldi (ed.). 1998. Guide to Clinically Significant Fungi, 1st ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

2337. Viviani, M. A., M. Cogliati, M. C. Esposto, A. Prigitano, and A. M. Tortorano. 2006. Four-year persistence of a single Candida albicans genotype causing bloodstream infections in a surgical ward proven by multilocus sequence typing. J Clin Microbiol. 44:218-221.

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