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Glossary   Glossary


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z



A

Acid-fast:
A property of cell walls that during a staining reaction retain basic dyes when decolorized with mineral acids.
Acropetal:
Having the youngest conidia at the apex of a chain.
Actinomycete:
A Gram-positive bacterium that grows vegetatively in a branched filamentous form.
Aerial hyphae:
Hyphae that grow above the agar surface.
Aerobic:
Having the ability to grow in the presence of oxygen.
Allantoid:
Sausage shaped.
Anaerobic:
Lacking the ability to grow in the presence of oxygen.
Anamorph (ANAtomic MORPHology):
The asexual form of the fungus that is recognized solely based on its anatomic morphology.
Annellide:
A conidiogenous cell that gives rise to successive conidia in a basipetal manner. The apex of an annellide becomes longer and narrower as each subsequent conidium is formed and released. An apical ring composed of outer cell wall material remains as each conidium is released.
Annelloconidium (pl. annelloconidia):
A conidium formed by an annellide.
Annular frill:
A ring or skirtlike portion of cell wall material at the base of a conidium that remains when the conidium separates from its conidiophore.
Antler hyphae:
See favic chandelier.
Apex (pl. apices):
The tip.
Arthroconidium (pl. arthroconidia):
A conidium formed by the modification of a hyphal cell(s) and then released by the fragmentation-lysis of a disjunctor cell or by fission through a thickened septum.
Arthrospore:
See arthroconidium.
Ascospore:
A haploid sexual spore that is formed by free-cell formation in an ascus following karyogamy and meiosis.
Ascostroma (pl. ascostromata):
A specialized mass of hyphae containing cavities in which asci develop.
Ascus (pl. asci):
A saclike cell that gives rise to ascospore. Asci are characteristic of the Ascomycetes.
Assimilation:
The utilization of nutrients for growth, with oxygen serving as the final electron acceptor.
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B

Bacterium (pl. bacteria):
A simple prokaryotic microorganism having absorptive nutrition.
Ballistoconidium (pl. ballistoconidia):
A forcibly discharged conidium.
Balloon form:
Pertaining to a large globose conidium formed by some dermatophytes, especially Trichophyton tonsurans.
Basidiospore:
A haploid sexual spore formed on a basidium following the process of karyogamy and meiosis.
Basidium (pl. basidia):
A specialized cell that gives rise to basidiospores. Basidia are characteristic of the Basidiomycetes.
Basipetal:
Having the youngest conidia at the base of a chain.
Bipolar budding:
The development of conidia at both ends of the parent cell.
Biseriate:
Having phialides arising from metulae on the vesicles of species of Aspergillus.
Bitunicate:
Having two walls.
Black yeast:
A dematiaceous, unicellular, budding fungus that typically forms a black, pasty colony.
Blastoconidium (pl. blastoconidia):
A conidium that is blown out from part of its parent cell and is typically released by fission through a thickened basal septum.
Blastospore:
See blastoconidium.
Budding:
Asexual formation of small, rounded outgrowths from a parent cell. These will become conidia.
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C

Capsule:
A gelatinous covering around a cell.
Carry-over:
Indigenous substances stored within the cells of inoculum, nutrients in the original culture medium, or both. These substances support growth of the test isolate in an assimilation study.
Chlamydoconidium (pl. chlamydoconidia):
A rounded, enlarged conidium that usually has a thickened cell wall and functions as a survival propagule.
Chlamydospore:
See chlamydoconidium.
Circinate:
Coiled into a complete or partial ring.
Clamp connection:
A specialized hyphal bridge involved with nuclear division in the Basidiomycetes.
Clavate:
Club shaped.
Cleistothecium (pl. cleistothecia):
An enclosed fruiting body that contains randomly dispersed asci.
Collarette:
A small collar.
Columella (pl. columellae):
A sterile dome-like expansion at the apex of a sporangiophore.
Conical:
Cone shaped.
Conidiogenous cell:
A cell that gives rise to conidia.
Conidiophore:
A specialized hypha upon which conidia develop.
Conidium (pl. conidia):
An asexual, non-motile, usually deciduous propagule that is not formed by cytoplasmic cleave, free-cell formation, or by conjugation.
Coremium (pl. coremia):
See synnema.
Cottony:
See floccose.
Crosswall:
A septum.
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D

Dematiaceous:
Having brown to black conidia or hyphae.
Denticle:
A peg.
Dermatophyte:
A fungus in the genus Epidermophyton, Microsporum, or Trichophyton that infects hair, nail, or skin.
Dimorphic:
Having two different morphologic forms.
Disjunctor cell:
A cell that releases a lysis.
Double septum:
A thickened septum that releases a conidium by its fragmentation or separates through its center .
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E

Echinulate:
Having a delicate, spiny wall.
Endemic fungus (or endemic pathogen):
The endemic fungi are those fungi able to produce an invasive infection (infection of tissue) in healthy individuals. That is, the fungus is sufficiently virulent that it does not require any help breaching the host's immune defenses. The classic endemic fungi are Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, and Sporothrix. Compare with opportunistic fungus.
Endospore:
A spore formed within a spherule by a cleavage process following karyogamy and mitosis.
Erect:
Upright.
Exudate:
Droplets of fluid formed on the surface of a colony.
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F

Favic chandelier:
A repeatedly branched cluster of hyphal apices that resembles a chandelier.
Fermentation:
The ability to utilize nutrients for growth, with organic compounds serving as the final electron acceptor.
Filament:
A threadlike element of a bacterium; a hypha of a fungus.
Fission:
To split into two portions or cells.
Fission arthroconidium:
An arthroconidium that is released by f1ssion through a double septum.
Floccose:
Having a cottony texture.
Foot cell:
The base of a macrophialoconidium produced by a species of Fusarium having a heel-like projection; the base of the conidiophore of Aspergillus species where it merges with the hypha and resembles the heel and toes of a foot.
Fragmentation:
Separation of a hyphae into conidia.
Fungus (pl. fungi):
A eukaryotic, unicellular to filamentous, achlorophyllous organism having an absorptive nutrition. A fungus reproduces by sexual, asexual, or both means.
Fusiform:
Tapering at both ends; spindle shaped.
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G

Geniculate:
Bent like a series of knees.
Germ pore:
An unthickened spot in a spore or conidial wall through which a germ tube may form.
Germ tube:
A hypha initially developing from a conidium or spore.
Glabrous:
Smooth.
Globose:
Round.
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H

Hemispheric:
Half of a sphere.
Hilum (pl. hila):
A scar at the base of a conidium.
Hülle cell:
A cell having a thickened cell wall and a small lumen. Hulle cells are associated with species of Aspergillus.
Hyaline:
Without color.
Hypha (pl. hyphae):
An individual filament of a fungus.
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I

Intercalary:
Occurring within a hypha.
Internode:
That portion of a hypha that is between two nodes.
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