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Glossary   Glossary


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J

K

Karyogamy:
Fusion of two nuclei.
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L

Lageniform:
Flask shaped with a tapering distal portion.
Lanose:
Having a woolly texture.
Lysis:
Dissolution.
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M

Macroconidium (pl. macroconidia):
The larger of two conidia of two different sizes that are produced in the same manner by a single fungus.
Merosporangium (pl. merosporangia):
A sporangium having its sporangiospores in a single row.
Metula (pl. metulae):
A sterile branch upon which phialides of some species of Aspergillus and Penicillium develop.
Microconidium (pl. microconidia):
The smaller of two conidia of two different sizes that are produced in the same manner by a single fungus.
Moniliform:
Having swellings.
Mould:
A filamentous fungus.
Multiple budding:
The development of several series of blastoconidia around a parent yeast cell.
Muriform:
Having vertical and horizontal septa.
Mycelia sterilia:
See Sterile Hyphae.
Mycelium:
The aggregated mass of hyphae making up a fungus.
Mycology:
The branch of biology that deals with the study of fungi.
N

Node:
Where a stolon touches a surface.
Nodular organ:
A knot of hyphae that is often produced by dermatophytes.
Nomen confusum (nom. conf.):
A name based on two or more different components.
Nomen conservandum (nom. cons.):
A name authorized for use by the International Botanical Congress (IBC).
Nomen dubium (nom. dub.):
A name of uncertain sense.
Nomen illegitimum (nom. illegit.):
A validly published name, but one that contravenes some of the articles of the IBC.
Nomen invalidum (nom. inval.):
A name that is not valid.
Nomen nudum (nom. nud.):
A name that lacks a description.
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O

Obclavate:
Club shaped in reverse.
Obovoid:
Egg shaped in reverse.
Obsolete:
A synonym of a published name that is no longer acceptable for use. Possible reasons for being invalid are coded as nom. conf., nom. dub., nom. illegit., or nom. nud.
Opportunistic fungus (or opportunistic pathogen):
This is a fungus that can produce invasive disease (disease in the tissue) only when the host defenses are weakened. That is, there must be breakdown of the immune system or the skin barrier before the fungus can produce disease. A classic example would be the fungus Aspergillus. This fungus is ubiquitous (found everywhere) in the environment, but cannot normally produce invasive disease in people unless the immune system is weakened (e.g., by taking high doses of steroids for prolonged periods of time). Compare with the endemic fungi.

Special note regarding those opportunistic fungi often found in mould-contaminated buildings: The phrase "opportunistic" speaks to the ability to produce tissue invasion. Opportunistic fungi can also produce other less invasive diseases. For example, Alternaria can produce sinusitis or onychomycosis (nail infection) in otherwise apparently healthy individuals. However, there are often still subtle predisposing factors such as prior bacterial sinus infections. Also, the phrase "opportunistic" has nothing to do with the ability of a fungus to make toxins.
Olivaceous:
Having an olive shade of color.
Ostiolate:
Having an ostiole.
Ostiole:
A mouth or opening through which spores or conidia may escape.
Oval:
Egg-shaped.
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P

Papilla (pl. papillae):
A small nipple-shaped elevation.
Penicillus:
A brush-like conidial bead produced by members of the genus Penicillium.
Percurrent:
Developing through a previous apex.
Perforating organ:
A mass of hyphae producing a conical cavity in the in vitro hair test; a characteristic property of certain keratinophilic fungi.
Perithecium (pl. perithecia):
A fruiting body having asci in a basal group or as a layer; perithecia are usually flask shaped, with an opening through which the asci or ascospore escape.
Phialide:
A type of conidiogenous cell that gives rise to successive conidia from a fixed site in a basipetal manner. A phialide does not increase in length as the conidia are formed, and its apex does not become smaller in diameter. A collarette is often present at the apex of the phialide.
Phialoconidium (pl. phialoconidia):
A conidium produced by a phialide.
Phycomycetes:
An archaic class name once used for the lower fungi in general. These organisms are now placed either in the kingdom Protista or in the classes Trichomycetes and Zygomycetes of the kingdom Fungi.
Pleomorphic:
Having several forms. The term is also applied to dermatophyte colonies that become irreversibly sterile.
Polymorphic:
Having several forms.
Poroconidium (pl. poroconidia):
A conidium that forms through a pore in the cell wall of its conidiogenous cell.
Propagule:
A reproductive unit.
Pseudohypha (pl. pseudohyphae):
A series of blastoconidia that have remained attached to each other forming a filament. The blastoconidia are often elongated with the points of attachment between adjacent cells being constricted.
Pseudomycelium:
A large amount of pseudohyphae.
Pycnidium (pl. pycnidia):
A sac-like fruiting body that gives rise to conidia within its central area.
Pyriform:
Pear shaped.
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Q

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